Can bed bugs live in places other than mattresses?

Bed bugs have long been associated primarily with mattresses in the public’s mind, earning their moniker from their infamous habit of hiding in beds and feeding on humans as they sleep. These tiny, apple-seed-sized pests have carved a niche in urban folklore, leading many to believe that a bed is their only residence. However, such a belief is far from the truth. Beyond the soft folds of mattresses and bed linens, bed bugs are opportunistic creatures that can find refuge in a myriad of places in both domestic and public environments. From the cracks in furniture to the recesses of electrical appliances, their adaptability often catches people off-guard, making it all the more imperative to debunk the misconceptions surrounding their habitats.

Bed Bugs Basics: A Quick Primer

Let’s start by understanding what bed bugs are and how they navigate through various environments.

Definition of Bed Bugs

Bed bugs are small, oval, brownish insects that feed on the blood of animals or humans. Adult bed bugs possess flat bodies about the size of an apple seed. After feeding, however, their bodies swell and gain a reddish color. While they don’t fly, they can move quickly over floors, walls, and ceilings. Nymphs, or juvenile bed bugs, shed their skins five times before reaching maturity and need a blood meal before each shedding. These creatures are resilient, capable of surviving several months without a meal and enduring a wide range of temperatures from nearly freezing to 122 degrees Fahrenheit.

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Methods of Bed Bug Travel

Contrary to some beliefs, bed bugs don’t hop or fly. Instead, they crawl and are excellent hitchhikers. They primarily spread through human activity. One of the most common ways bed bugs are transported is through luggage and personal belongings, especially when individuals have stayed in infested accommodations. Used furniture, particularly mattresses and sofas, can also be a mode of transport. In dense living conditions such as apartment complexes or hotels, bed bugs can move from one unit to another through cracks and openings in walls or floors. Additionally, they can cling onto clothing, which can unwittingly be a vector for them to move from infested areas to new locations. Given these methods, it’s clear that while bed bugs might be small in stature, their potential for rapid spread is significant.

Popular Myths Debunked

One of the most common misconceptions surrounding bed bugs is their exclusive reliance on human blood. While it’s true that bed bugs prefer human hosts, they are not exclusively dependent on humans for their blood meals. They can and will feed on other warm-blooded animals if necessary. This includes pets such as dogs, cats, and birds. Their flexible diet is part of the reason why they’ve been such successful pests throughout history. However, they are drawn to humans primarily because we lack the thick fur that can make it challenging for bed bugs to navigate and feed on other mammals.

Lifespan Without Feeding

Another pervasive myth is that bed bugs, due to their tiny size, would have a very short lifespan if they don’t feed regularly. In reality, bed bugs are masters of resilience. An adult bed bug can survive several months to nearly a year without a blood meal, depending on conditions. Younger bed bugs, or nymphs, require more regular feeding to mature but can still survive weeks without feeding. This incredible survival ability is what makes treating infestations challenging. Simply leaving a room or home vacant for a few weeks or even months will not necessarily rid the space of these tenacious pests, as they can enter a semi-dormant state, slowing their metabolism and maximizing their chances of survival until a host returns.

Common Hideouts: Beyond the Mattress

Preference for Fabric or Wood

Bed bugs don’t have a strict preference between fabric or wood, but they are inclined towards places that offer them more hiding spots. In fabric-upholstered furniture, they can tuck themselves into seams, folds, and other tight spaces. Wood, particularly untreated or older pieces, can offer cracks, crevices, and under-surface areas that are ideal for bed bugs to hide in. However, it’s the complexity and accessibility of hiding spots, rather than the material itself, that typically attracts these pests.

Presence in Outdoor Furniture

While bed bugs are primarily indoor pests, they can occasionally be found in outdoor furniture, especially if that furniture is used by humans for extended periods, like lounge chairs or daybeds. The key factor here is the proximity to their food source – humans. For instance, if a cushioned patio chair is near a house entrance and frequently used, it can become an attractive hideout, especially if brought indoors during off-seasons.

Risk in Pets’ Beds

Pets’ beds can certainly harbor bed bugs, particularly if they are situated close to human sleeping or resting areas. The warmth, the presence of a host (even if it’s not their preferred human host), and the often cushioned or padded nature of pets’ beds make them an attractive spot for these pests.

Presence in Carpets and Rugs

Carpets and rugs, especially those with deeper piles, present an ideal habitat for bed bugs due to their intricate structures. These pests can effectively embed themselves deep into the carpet fibers, where they remain shielded from day-to-day activities. Areas beneath furniture or those not frequently exposed to light or foot traffic are particularly vulnerable since they provide bed bugs a dark, undisturbed refuge. Additionally, these insects can lay eggs and leave fecal deposits within the layers of carpets, which might go unnoticed for prolonged periods. Though routine vacuuming can certainly aid in reducing the bed bug population and removing their eggs, it’s crucial to employ a high-suction vacuum and regularly dispose of its contents securely. Carpets with thicker piles or those rugs that have a dense underlayer are even more concerning as they can harbor larger colonies of bed bugs, making localized infestations potent and persistent.

Hideouts in Electronics

The notion that bed bugs could infest electronics might strike many as odd, but these adaptable pests are known to exploit any suitable hideout. Electronics, especially those used or stored near sleeping areas, can be appealing for several reasons. First, the warmth generated by many devices offers a cozy environment. Secondly, the numerous vent holes, crevices, and other small openings in devices such as computers, televisions, alarm clocks, and game consoles provide bed bugs with accessible entry and exit points. Moreover, these spots are typically overlooked during regular cleaning, allowing bed bugs to thrive undisturbed. Treating electronics is especially challenging due to the risk of damage. It’s not just the device itself; even the cords, especially if they’re stored coiled or bundled, can offer hiding spots. Preventative measures, like regularly inspecting and cleaning electronics and being cautious when bringing second-hand devices into the home, are essential to curb potential infestations.

Infestation in Clothing & Closets

Clothing and closets can often be ground zero for bed bug infestations, especially after a trip. Travelers might unknowingly pick them up from infested hotel rooms. To prevent bringing them home, travelers should inspect their luggage before packing, avoid placing bags on beds or upholstered furniture in unknown places, and consider washing all their clothes (even unworn ones) in hot water upon return.

Presence in Vehicles and Transportation

Transportation modes, particularly those with extensive upholstery, such as cars, buses, trains, and airplanes, have emerged as potential hotspots for bed bug infestations. The continual influx of passengers, combined with the warmth and darkness that vehicles often provide, makes them attractive environments for these pests.

In personal vehicles like cars, the infestation often originates from an external source – perhaps a passenger unknowingly carried the bugs, or items with bed bugs were transported in the vehicle. Over time, without proper maintenance, these bugs can embed themselves in the car seats, cracks, crevices, and even areas like glove compartments or under mats.

Public transportation poses a different challenge. Buses and trains, constantly boarded by diverse groups of passengers, might inadvertently become transit hubs for bed bugs. Their short trips and frequent stops provide ample opportunities for bed bugs to transfer between passengers and the vehicle’s interior. Similarly, airplanes, despite their thorough cleaning procedures, are not immune. The long durations of flights and the usage of blankets or pillows can sometimes introduce these pests into the aircraft.

Regular maintenance, including cleaning and vacuuming of vehicles, plays a crucial role in keeping the bed bug threat at bay. For personal vehicles, frequent and deep cleaning combined with periodic professional treatments can be effective.

For travelers and daily commuters, vigilance is key. Before settling into a seat, whether in a carpool, a train, or a plane, a quick inspection can prevent potential exposure. It’s also wise to limit the direct contact of personal belongings with vehicle surfaces; using sealed bags or protective covers can offer an additional layer of security. Encasing luggage in protective wraps, especially during air travel, can significantly reduce the risk of picking up these unwanted hitchhikers.

Signs of Infestation in Unconventional Places

While the signs of bed bug infestations can be subtle, there are a few unmistakable indicators. The most direct evidence is the sighting of live bugs. However, bed bugs are elusive, and often, their presence is detected by secondary signs. Dark or rusty spots of bed bug excrement on mattresses, bedclothes, walls, and even floors can hint at their presence. These spots can bleed like a marker would when touched. Additionally, small spots of blood may sometimes be seen on sheets where bed bugs have been inadvertently crushed. One may also find discarded skins (exoskeletons) from nymphs as they grow and molt. A sweet, musty odor might be detected, which is an odor from the bugs’ scent glands.

Frequency of Inspections

Regular inspections can help in early detection and management of a bed bug problem. For high-risk places like hotels, motels, and hostels, inspections should be carried out after every guest’s departure. In homes, a monthly check is advisable, especially if there have been prior infestations. Places that have dense human traffic like theaters, public transportation, and offices should also consider monthly checks or whenever a possible infestation is reported.

Identification in Non-Mattress Areas

In unconventional areas, the signs can be a bit different. In electronics, for instance, one might notice the bugs themselves venturing out from vent holes or seams, especially during the night. In vehicles, apart from the bugs, there might be evidence of tiny eggshells or the yellowish shed skins in crevices of seats or carpeting. Clothing and closets could show tiny, pinprick-sized stains from where they’ve fed or excreted. On soft furnishings like sofas or curtains, apart from the usual fecal spots, one might also find pale yellow nymphs or tiny white eggs tucked into the seams or folds. Similarly, in pet beds, apart from live bugs, one might discover molted skins or the tiny white eggs, which are about the size of a pin’s head.

The Environment and Bed Bugs

Bed bugs are adaptable creatures, but like all insects, their activity, growth, and reproduction are influenced by temperature and climate. In optimal conditions, which is around 70°F to 80°F (21°C to 27°C), bed bugs can develop from an egg to an adult in as little as a month. However, extreme temperatures can affect their lifecycle. Prolonged exposure to temperatures below freezing can kill them, though it might take days at such temperatures for a guaranteed extermination. On the flip side, high heat is more effective against bed bugs. A sustained temperature of 118°F (48°C) for 90 minutes or more can eliminate them, which is why heat treatments are popular for controlling infestations. Climate indirectly affects bed bugs through human behavior. In colder regions, people tend to stay indoors more, potentially increasing the risk of spreading infestations.

Infestation in Stored Items in Attics or Basements

Stored items, especially those that are not regularly disturbed, can be havens for bed bugs. Attics and basements are particularly susceptible because they are often cooler and undisturbed for long periods, allowing bed bugs to thrive without disruption. Old furniture, boxes of clothing, stored bedding, and even stored electronics can harbor these pests. When items from these areas are brought back into the main living space, or when someone decides to have a garage sale or donate items, there’s a risk of spreading the infestation. It’s always crucial to inspect and, if possible, clean or treat items from such storage areas before reintroducing them into the living environment or giving them away.

Prevention and Treatment

While routine household cleaning is essential for overall hygiene, it might not be entirely effective against bed bug infestations. Regular cleaning practices, such as sweeping, mopping, or dusting, can reduce the number of adult bed bugs to some extent, but these methods often overlook eggs and nymphs that might be deeply embedded in fabrics or crevices. Products like Lysol or Mr. Clean can kill germs, but they aren’t specifically designed to combat bed bugs. However, the act of regular cleaning can aid in early detection, which is vital for managing and containing the spread.

Tips for Treating Non-Mattress Items and Areas

One of the most effective ways to treat items is through heat. Bed bugs, at all stages, die at temperatures above 118°F (48°C). Placing smaller items like clothes, shoes, or toys in a dryer on high for 30 minutes can effectively kill them. For electronics or items that cannot be heated directly, using products like the PackTite heating chamber (costing around $300-$400) can be beneficial.

Steam Cleaning

Handheld steam cleaners, such as the McCulloch MC1275 Heavy-Duty Cleaner (priced at about $150), can be used on carpets, curtains, and upholstery. The high-temperature steam not only kills bed bugs but also helps in cleaning residues and stains they leave behind.


Bed bugs can be killed at temperatures below 0°F (-18°C). Placing infested items in a deep freezer for several days can exterminate them. This method is particularly useful for delicate items that cannot withstand heat.

Professional Extermination

While DIY methods can control a mild bed bug issue, a full-blown infestation often requires professional help. Exterminators, such as Orkin, employ a combination of treatments, including chemicals, heat, and fumigation, to ensure comprehensive extermination. They also offer follow-up checks to prevent re-infestation. The cost of professional extermination can range from $500 for smaller spaces to upwards of $1500 for larger homes or more severe infestations. Given the resilience of bed bugs and their ability to multiply rapidly, investing in professional services often proves to be more cost-effective and efficient in the long run.


In this age of global travel and interconnected spaces, the spread of bed bugs can be rapid and pervasive. Thus, knowledge is our first line of defense. Recognizing the signs of infestation, knowing where to look, and understanding their habits are all crucial aspects of effective bed bug management. To safeguard our homes, workplaces, and shared spaces, regular inspections are imperative. Vigilance can help detect early signs of infestation, making treatment more manageable and effective. Maintaining cleanliness and order in our environments not only reduces the likelihood of an infestation but also promotes a healthier living and working space. Let’s be proactive. Take a moment today to inspect those often-overlooked areas, consider professional evaluations periodically, and always prioritize cleanliness. By doing so, we can create environments where bed bugs are less likely to thrive and ensure the well-being of our families and communities.