Are Ants Harmful to My Health?

Ants are fascinating creatures found in almost every environment in the world. While they play important roles in ecosystems, their presence in and around our living spaces can sometimes raise concerns. Here are three key points regarding ants and human health:

  • Some species of ants, such as fire ants or certain tropical ants, can deliver painful bites or stings that may cause localized reactions or, in rare cases, allergic reactions requiring medical attention.
  • Ants can contaminate food and surfaces with bacteria, pathogens, or allergens, potentially leading to foodborne illnesses or allergic reactions.
  • Exposure to ants or their waste products can trigger allergic reactions or exacerbate respiratory issues, such as asthma, in individuals with existing respiratory conditions.

Diseases Caused By Ants

Ants are known for their ability to find food almost anywhere. However, this means they are susceptible to many food-borne diseases and infections. They can then spread these illnesses to humans, negatively affecting human health. 

Bacterial Infections from Ants

One of the most concerning threats from ants is the risk of fungal infections. Below we describe the most common conditions spread by ants. 

As you read through the list below, keep in mind that most experts do not consider ants significant vectors for E. coli, Salmonella, and Shigella. Ants have occasionally spread infections of these pathogens, which is why we include them here. However, ants are more commonly associated with transmitting bacteria like Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. 

E. coli

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a bacterium commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. While E. coli can cause foodborne illness symptoms, such as diarrhea and abdominal cramps, most people get infected with it through contaminated food and water. Because ants are foragers, they can potentially bring E. coli into your home


Salmonella is a group of bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal illnesses, such as salmonellosis, with symptoms including diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. Like E. coli, Salmonella is primarily transmitted through contaminated food, especially raw or undercooked eggs, poultry, meat, and unpasteurized dairy products. 

Ants can come into contact with Salmonella in their environment. If an ant comes into contact with Salmonella-contaminated food, it can easily bring the bacteria into your home’s food container or counter. If humans come into contact with contaminated ants or their fecal matter, they can easily become infected with salmonella.

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Shigella is a group of bacteria that can cause shigellosis, a diarrheal illness characterized by abdominal cramps, fever, and frequent, watery stools. Shigella is primarily transmitted from person to person through the fecal-oral route. 

While some studies have documented the presence of Shigella in ants, the actual role of ants in transmitting Shigella to humans is unclear. 

Staphylococcus Infections

Staphylococcus bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, are commonly found on the bodies of ants, particularly species that nest in and around human dwellings, such as pharaoh ants. If an infected ant comes into contact with a surface or an open wound, it can transfer these bacteria, leading to a Staphylococcus infection. 

Symptoms of Staphylococcus infections can range from minor skin issues, such as boils or blisters, to more severe conditions, such as abscesses or fevers, if the bacteria enter the bloodstream.

Streptococcus Infections

Streptococcus bacteria, such as Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus), can also be found on ants. Like Staphylococcus infections, if an ant carrying Streptococcus comes into contact with an open wound or a mucous membrane, it can transmit the bacteria and cause a Streptococcus infection in a human. 

Streptococcus infections can manifest as pain when swallowing, swollen lymph nodes, or more serious conditions like sinus infections, rheumatic fever, or post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.

While unlikely, you must be aware of the potential for an ant infestation to affect your health negatively. If you notice an infestation of ants in your home or workplace, contacting a professional exterminator is best to help with the problem. By taking preventive measures and getting rid of ant colonies as soon as they are spotted, you can help reduce the risk of disease transmission and ensure the safety of those around you.

Allergic Reactions to Ants

Ants are a common pest most of us associate with an annoyance. However, these tiny insects can seriously threaten the health of some individuals. Some ant species are known for their painful bites. These include the following. 

  • Fire ants
  • Harvester ants
  • Oak ants

Bites from these ant species could lead to a life-threatening allergic reaction for people with allergies.

More people have ant allergies than you might expect. Ants belong to the order Hymenoptera, which also includes bees and wasps. Therefore, individuals allergic to bees or wasps have a higher chance of developing an allergy to ants due to the similarity of the protein in their venom. An allergic reaction to an ant sting can range from mild to severe and, in rare cases, even be fatal.

Common Allergic Reactions Caused by Ants

Ant allergies are relatively rare, but they can result in uncomfortable symptoms and, in some cases, even severe reactions. In some extreme cases, it may even lead to death. Here are some of the common allergic reactions caused by ants:

  1. Localized skin reactions: A localized skin reaction is one of the most common allergic reactions to ant bites or stings. It can manifest as redness, swelling, itching, and pain at the bite site. The reaction may be immediate or delayed, appearing hours after the bite. The symptoms usually subside within a few days without medical intervention.
  2. Mild allergic reactions: Some individuals may experience a mild allergic reaction to ant venom, resulting in hives, itchiness, and generalized swelling. These symptoms can extend beyond the bite site. While distressing, mild allergic reactions are typically not life-threatening. You can manage them with over-the-counter antihistamines or topical creams.
  3. Anaphylaxis: In rare cases, ant bites or stings can trigger a severe allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing, wheezing, rapid heartbeat, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and a sudden drop in blood pressure. 
  4. Systemic reactions: Some people may develop a systemic response to ant venom, even without experiencing anaphylaxis. Systemic reactions involve symptoms that affect your whole body, such as widespread hives, facial swelling, difficulty breathing, and gastrointestinal distress. Although not immediately life-threatening, systemic reactions require medical evaluation. Doctors often treat them with prescription antihistamines or corticosteroids.

Treatment for Allergic Reactions to Ants

The severity of an allergic reaction to ant bites can vary greatly among individuals. Some people may be more sensitive to ant venom than others, and repeated exposure can increase the intensity of the allergic response. Therefore, individuals who have experienced allergic reactions to ants should take precautions and avoid further exposure whenever possible.

Prevention is key for those with a known allergy to ant bites or stings. Avoiding contact with ants, particularly if you know you are allergic, is the best way to prevent an allergic reaction. If you are in a situation where ants are present, wear protective clothing, such as long sleeves and pants, and avoid walking barefoot outside.

Treatment for allergic reactions to ants is available, and prompt medical attention can be life-saving. If you suspect you or someone in your household may be having an allergic reaction to ants, seek medical care immediately. 

For mild allergic reactions, you may be able to treat the bite with over-the-counter medications. However, people severely allergic to ants will likely need a medical professional to prescribe antihistamines or corticosteroids. They may also need to carry an epinephrine auto-injector (EpiPen). This device can provide a quick and potentially life-saving dose of epinephrine and help reduce the severity of the allergic reaction.


In conclusion, ants are generally not harmful to human health. Most species of ants are harmless and do not threaten our well-being directly. They are primarily a nuisance pest that invades our living spaces.

However, some ant species can harm humans, especially in specific geographic regions. For example, fire ants and harvester ants have venomous bites that can cause painful reactions and allergic responses in sensitive individuals. Additionally, ants can indirectly affect our health by contaminating food and surfaces. 

To minimize the risk of harm from ants, you must maintain good hygiene practices, seal off entry points, and promptly address any ant infestations. These measures, plus the knowledge you gained from this article, can help create a safe and healthy living environment for you and your family.